6 Develop a global partnership for development

Where we are

The Government of Rwanda has undertaken a number of reforms, however many challenges still need the coordinated support of the Development Partners

Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries

Rwanda has set out its expectations for the management of aid in support of development goals incorporating elements of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The GoR’s preference is for aid to be provided as Direct Budget Support (BS) followed by Sector Budget Support (SBS). Development partners are expected to align aid with government priorities.

The Government has undertaken a number of reforms and other initiatives including reforming the public financial system so that it complies with international good practice enabling DPs to have confidence in using its systems. It was one of the two top performers in the review of progress to achieving its Paris Declaration targets in the 2011 review ahead of the Busan meeting (OECD, 2011b). Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) agreements have been signed with DPs in seven sectors and a division of labour agreed to ensure that development aid meets the needs of all sectors and to reduce transaction costs and fragmentation. A review found that SWAps had had a positive impact on DPs’ coordination, harmonisation and alignment as well as strengthening strategic dialogue. The establishment of a Single Project Implementation Unit (SPIU) in each ministry should reduce the costs of aid delivery and give the Government greater ownership. The Project Treasury Single Account (PTSA) will facilitate the provision of timely information on ODA flows.

The fragility of the relationship with DPs and the issues surrounding aid conditionality are evidenced in Rwanda by the reaction of some DPs to the publication of UN Expert Group report in June 2012 on Rwanda’s supposed support for rebels in the DRC, which Rwanda denies. The publication led to a number of DPs, including the USA, the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands, delaying or suspending some aid payments thus reducing the GoR’s ability to deliver its development strategy.

One of the main priority is to build the partnership for development between the Government and the development partners so that there is mutual accountability and more ODA committed to the SWAp.

In Rwanda only 1.7% of the households have a computer

Target 8B: Provide access to essential drugs and make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

 Access to affordable drugs is essential for maintaining health, enabling people to be productive and alleviating suffering. The increased availability of generic drugs, the growth of the pharmaceutical industry in developing countries and agreements to permit drugs to be manufactured for sale at a lower price in developing countries have made essential drugs more affordable. Antiretroviral treatment is available for all HIV-positive individuals in Rwanda who meet the criteria for treatment, although not all those eligible do access treatment. Other essential drugs are available through the mutual health insurance scheme. 65 per cent of the population is covered by the scheme and is therefore entitled to medicines, as is the additional four per cent of people covered by other health insurance schemes. This leaves about 30 per cent of the population without access to essential medicines (pregnant women have access as of right); some of these are unable to afford to pay for health cover.

In terms of access to telephones, computers and the internet, Rwanda has developed an integrated ICT policy with a clear vision of making ICT a critical part of its socio-economic development plan. The vision is to move from an agrarian base to a knowledge economy by 2020. However, despite strong political commitment, Rwanda faces major challenges in implementing its vision, including the lack of a skilled workforce.

In 2010/11 45 per cent of households had at least one mobile ‘phone compared with six per cent in 2005/6. However, only 1.7 per cent of households own a computer. Households in urban areas and especially in the City of Kigali are much more likely to have a mobile phone than those in rural areas, 80 per cent in the City of Kigali and 72 per cent in urban areas compared with 41 per cent in rural areas. However, a slightly higher proportion of households have internet access, 16 per cent in urban areas and two per cent in rural areas.

There has been significant increase in the infrastructure, including the National Broadband Backbone for the internet, but access remains low and there is a growing divide between a small minority who are information-rich and the vast majority who are information-poor.

One of the main bottlenecks is a lack of clear broadband policy and lack of adequate consideration of the infrastructure and investment needs.

The main priorities are to extend ICT to rural areas and developing awareness of the uses and benefits of the technologies, to drive the cost of mobile phone and internet services down as well as to expand the once-computer- a- child project and train  small enterprises in the use of mobile phone and computers in their income generating activities.

Population Covered by Mutual Health Insurance

Bar Chart
Targets for MDG8
  1. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
    • Developing countries gain greater access to the markets of developed countries
    • Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products
  2. Address the special needs of least developed countries
    • Net Official development assistance (ODA), total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income
    • Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  3. Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
    • Official development assistance (ODA) received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national income
    • ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  4. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries
    • Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
    • Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives
    • Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
  5. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
    • Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
  6. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
    • Telephone lines per 100 population
    • Cellular subscribers per 100 population
    • Internet users per 100 population